The authors, researchers from Marywood University, the Pennsylvania State University, Sam Houston State University, and Center of Health & Whole Healing, explore the importance of the multicultural competencies for effectiveness of family counseling. The article findings are based on the evidence provided by the presenters participating in the American Counseling Association (ACA) 2010 Conference. The authors argue that culturally competent counselors are to model their multicultural competence permanently throughout their counseling practices. To support their argument, the researchers exemplify specific experiences of the presenters’ counseling and show that constant training in cultural competence is a great contribution to effective multicultural counseling.
Blues as an original American music genre has been widely appreciated and adored by music enthusiasts all over the world. Being a product of authentic American social and ethnical background, this style implies the character of African American inhabitants of the area considered its cradle. In the result of blues evolution, we have a range of its styles and varieties, which are played not only by black, but also by white American citizens.
Alcohol abuse has been a serious, complex and very controversial issue faced by society, which has no universally effective solution. The complexity of alcoholism issue is partially underpinned by the fact that consumption of alcohol and attitude towards its abuse are culturally, religiously and socially biased notions (Ivanauskienė & Motiečienė, 2010, p.111). In other words the notion of alcohol overconsumption itself is blurred, which makes it difficult to define alcoholism. However, the immense body of research dedicated to the problem of alcohol abuse and its treatment implies a variety of defining aspects that contribute to the more or less precise definition of alcoholism as an issue of concern and social work. The definition suggested by Ivanauskienė & Motiečienė (2010, p.112) is probably among the most general: alcoholism is defined as psychological or physical dependence on consumption of alcohol that can lead to mental, social, or physical impairment.
VooDoo (also Vodun, Vodou) is an ancient syncretic denomination combining traditional African beliefs with Christian religious faiths. VooDoo originates in Africa, namely the modern territory of Benin, and was carried to the New World by African slaves. Thus, in America, voodoo is believed to combine traditions of Catholic, African and Native American beliefs. Voodoo is practiced worldwide, though the exact number of Voodooists is unknown. (Haas) The best-known are African, Haitian and Louisiana Voodoo. It is a religion of spirits.
Our society has been patriarchal since the dawn of civilization and gender relations has always been controlled by certain stereotypes favorable for men as the dominating sex. The acquisition of the gender role goes hand in hand with the process of socialization and the society literally makes individuals absorb the stereotypes and expectations imposed on them by their gender from early childhood. Even despite dramatic breakthroughs made by feminist movements during the 19 th and 20 th centuries seem to prove not efficient enough in fighting against sexism and gender stereotypes, which “can be conceptualized as the descriptive aspects of gender roles, as they depict the attributes that an individual ascribes” to males and females (Eisenchlas, 2013, p.2).